recommended for evaluation, development, and demonstration, that is being considered initially
with FY00 funding, is nucleate-boiling cooling in a hybrid forced-convection/nucleate-boiling
Other concepts recommended for evaluation include waste heat recovery/utilization
technologies and heat-pipe technology. Depending on funding levels, it is anticipated that one or
both of these concepts may be selected for development and demonstration, and also that other
"new concepts" will be identified and endorsed by the working group for inclusion in the
multiyear program plan. Funding allocations for this task in the out-years (see Table 1) are
enhanced to allow for this.
Task 3: Advanced Heat Exchangers and Heat Transfer Fluids. In this task, new and
innovative heat transfer enhancement methodologies will be evaluated, developed, and
demonstrated, together with new materials and designs for heat exchangers, and advanced heat
transfer fluids. The heat exchangers (radiator, charge-air cooler, oil coolers, EGR coolers) and
heat transfer fluids (coolant, oils, and ambient air) are key components of a truck thermal
management system. There is a general interest in reducing the size and weight of the heat
exchangers while maintaining reliability and durability. Also, the heat transfer fluids are
generally poor from the heat transfer standpoint. As a consequence, heat transfer surface
enhancement is of general importance. Recommended developments in enhanced heat transfer
and improved heat exchanger performance will initially be achieved in the following areas:
Advanced airside heat-rejection concepts.
New materials, such as carbon foams and carbon composites, for heat
Nanofluid technology for improving heat-transfer characteristics of coolants
and engine oils.
Fundamental understanding of fouling mechanisms and mitigation.
Carbon foam and nanofluid technologies are currently being funded (FY00), and these subtask
activities are expected to be continued if proof-of-concept studies so indicate.
Task 4: Simulation-Code Development. This task involves the development, validation,
and application of simulation software for the design, development, and optimization of truck
thermal-management-systems, and, ultimately, for the prediction of vehicle fuel economy and
emissions over an entire drive cycle. Improved management of underhood airflow will maximize
heat transfer and minimize contribution to overall aerodynamic drag. Such a code would also
help in benefits/cost analyses to quantify the energy savings potentials of new technologies. The
automotive industry has been using these simulation techniques in recent years. The trucking