Develop new materials for brake linings and drums that can withstand
the increased service requirements. This probably would require
laboratory testing of candidate materials, followed by dynamometer
evaluations, and concluding with vehicle tests.
Develop regenerative retarders that would capture and store some of
the kinetic energy, to be used for subsequent acceleration. The chief
technical barrier would be to design a device that will work reliably for
1 million miles with little or no maintenance.
Develop a wet braking system to replace the dry braking system.
Although wet brakes would easily meet the requirements for rapid and
controllable deceleration, current wet brakes have unacceptable
In addition to meeting specific requirements for wear-resistance, lubricity, corrosion resistance,
and adhesion, any new coating also must be cost-effective, friendly to the environment,
adaptable to high-volume manufacturing operations, and compatible with current and future
lubricants and fuels. With this in mind, five research projects were recommended:
Develop coatings for piston rings, cylinder liners, valves, and valve stems that
can tolerate operating conditions under exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR).
This is consistent with Item 3 under Materials.
Along with testing new or currently available coatings, attempts should be made
to understand the fundamental mechanisms of wear and corrosion during EGR.
Develop cavitation- and erosion-resistant coatings for fuel injectors operating
at high pressures with current diesel fuels and with alternative low-lubricity
fuels. This is consistent with Item 4 under Materials.
Develop coatings to replace ferrous cylinder liners in aluminum engine
blocks with conventional and alcohol-containing fuels. This is consistent with
Item 8 under Materials.
Develop a fundamental understanding of the interaction between coatings
and lubricants and fuels. The approach probably should involve in-situ
experiments using sophisticated, high-technology facilities (neutron diffraction,
x-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, etc.) at the national laboratories.
Develop models to predict full-scale behavior from results of laboratory
friction and wear tests. Alternatively, develop new laboratory tests that
correlate better with full-scale behavior. This is consistent with Item 3 under