Advanced-Concept Development. There is a need for new and innovative
advanced concepts. Those recommended for evaluation and, as judged
appropriate, development and demonstration, include
Controlled nucleate-boiling cooling.
Advanced Heat Exchangers and Heat-Transfer Fluids. Advanced heat
exchangers that are compact and lightweight are needed. To achieve this goal,
developments in the following areas are recommended:
Innovative, enhanced airside heat-rejection concepts.
New materials, such as carbon foams, for cooling-system components.
Nanofluid technology for improving heat-transfer characteristics of
coolants and engine oils.
Fundamental understanding of fouling mechanisms and mitigation.
Simulation-Code Development. A comprehensive computer code is needed
to optimize future designs and to predict fuel economy and emissions for an
entire drive cycle. This code would use modules for the power train, vehicle-
load prediction, control systems, cooling systems, external aerodynamics,
underhood airflow, cooling and refrigeration, lubricant cooling, and cabin
airflow. Toward that end, development of a framework for the comprehensive
code, a computational-fluid-dynamics module for underhood airflow and
temperatures, interface specifications, and an experimental data base is
recommended. Such a code would help to establish the benefits of new
technologies. Also recommended is development of a simple system code to
run on a PC for evaluating initial design concepts.
Sensors and Control Components Development. The application of an
advanced computer-controlled thermal-management system will require
accurate, reliable, and robust real-time sensors for engine temperatures,
pressures, coolant flow, and airflow, as well as NOx emissions. Such sensors
would be used for computer control and feedback. Research needs in sensors
and control components should be identified, and such components should be
developed as needed.
Concept/Demonstration Truck Sponsorship. The most convincing way to
determine and demonstrate the benefits and costs of new technologies as they
function within the entire system would be to incorporate them into a specially
designed concept truck. Detailed drive-cycle data, including temperatures,
pressures, and flow rates, as well as fuel economy and emissions, are required