comprehensive general model is needed in addition to specific models for splash/mist
lubrication and vapor-phase lubrication.
Affordable high-performance steels to withstand the higher stresses resulting from
increasing power density and fuel pressure.
Improved rotary-seal systems for longer life.
Improved brake systems to compensate for heavier loads and reduced aerodynamic
Although each sector of the ground transportation industry has different needs and objectives, the
recommended research areas address all of those needs and objectives because friction and wear
affect fuel efficiency, emissions, reliability, durability, safety, and profitability. The current
status, goals, and barriers related to the highest-priority research areas are summarized in
Most of the research projects probably should be conducted by teams of some or all of the
A national laboratory and/or university, to conduct early-stage research and material
A component manufacturer, to make prototype parts.
A lubricant and/or additive supplier.
A vehicle or engine manufacturer, to provide overall guidance and test the final parts.