To reduce mechanical losses in transmissions and axles and parasitic losses in shaft-
driven auxiliaries by 25%, new cost-effective coatings, materials, or designs will be
To meet federal and state emission requirements, soot and acid loading from EGR will
require improved lubricants or coatings, and lubricant formulations without sulfur and
phosphorus will be required to prevent contamination of catalysts for exhaust after-
To develop engines that can run on alternative liquid or gaseous fuels, lubricious
coatings or fuel additives will be needed to compensate for the lower lubricity of the
To encourage significant dieselization of Class 1 & 2 trucks (pickups, SUVs), thereby
achieving at least a 35% fuel efficiency improvement over gasoline-fueled engines, while at
the same time meeting emission requirements.
New coatings, lubricants, or designs will be needed to minimize friction losses at part
Major research areas that received a strong endorsement by industry include developing:
A quantitative understanding of failure mechanisms such as wear, scuffing, and
fatigue. This will be important for developing both improved computational design
codes and bench-top tests to accurately and reliably predict full-scale component
Bench-top tests that are predictive of full-scale behavior. Rapidly changing emission
standards require frequent changes in lubricant formulations and component designs.
Current laboratory tests to evaluate or qualify those changes do not correlate well
with full-scale behavior, but full-scale engine tests are prohibitively expensive.
A variety of affordable surface-modification technologies that would be suitable for
various components in various fuels or lubricants under various operating conditions.
New emission-reduction technologies and the move to higher power densities are
placing demands on surfaces in terms of wear and fatigue that can no longer be met
by conventional bulk materials. To satisfy the variety of needs that are emerging,
several different surface-modification technologies will be needed. These may
include various coating systems, thermal treatments, and texturing or smoothing.
Develop a better understanding of the chemistry of lubricants and how additives
affect their interactions with rubbing surfaces. This will provide a foundation for
developing new lubricants that will be longer-lasting, environmentally friendly,
capable of handling increased soot and acid loading from EGR, and compatible with
catalysts and/or new, lightweight nonferrous materials.
Advanced computer codes that model friction, wear, distribution of lubricants,
lubricant interactions with surfaces, and lubricant aging/degradation phenomena. A