compatible with catalysts (probably with very low sulfur and phosphorus levels), and/or
compatible with nonferrous materials.
Advanced computer codes that model friction, wear, distribution of lubricants, and
lubricant interactions with surfaces for designing low-friction, low-emission components
A general friction/wear/lubrication model is needed, along with more specific models of
lubrication and vapor-phase lubrication.
Other subjects that were mentioned less frequently but still represent significant opportunities for
energy savings include the following:
Affordable high-performance steels to withstand the higher stresses resulting from
increasing power density and fuel pressure.
Improved rotary-seal systems for longer life.
Improved brake systems to compensate for heavier loads and reduced aerodynamic drag.
The status, goals, and barriers associated with the highest-priority research areas are summarized
in Table 7.
Table 8 shows the relationships among the major research topics and the needs of the